Team AnnieWAY's Autonomous System for the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge

Journal paper


Sören Kammel
Julius Ziegler
Benjamin Pitzer
Moritz Werling
Tobias Gindele
Daniel Jagszent
Joachim Schröder
Michael Thuy
Matthias Goebl
Felix von Hundelshausen
Oliver Pink
Christian Frese
Christoph Stiller


Journal of Field Robotics 25 no. 9, September 2008.



This paper reports on AnnieWAY, an autonomous vehicle that is capable of driving through urban scenarios and that successfully entered the finals of the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge competition. After describing the main challenges imposed and the major hardware components, we outline the underlying software structure and focus on selected algorithms. Environmental perception mainly relies on a recent laser scanner that delivers both range and reflectivity measurements. Whereas range measurements are used to provide three-dimensional scene geometry, measuring reflectivity allows for robust lane marker detection. Mission and maneuver planning is conducted using a hierarchical state machine that generates behavior in accordance with California traffic laws. We conclude with a report of the results achieved during the competition.